As providers and caretakers, adults tend to view the world of children as happy and carefree. After all, kids don’t have jobs to keep or bills to pay, so what could they possibly have to worry about? PLENTY! Even very young children have worries and feel stress to some degree.
Sources of Stress
Stress is a function of the demands placed on us and our ability to meet them. These demands often come from outside sources, such as family, jobs, friends, or school. But it also can come from within, often related to what we think we should be doing versus what we’re actually able to do.
So stress can affect anyone who feels overwhelmed – even children. In preschoolers, separation from parents can cause anxiety. As children get older, academic and social pressures (especially from trying to fit in) create stress.
Many children are too busy to have time to play creatively or relax after school. Children who complain about all their activities or who refuse to go to them might be over-scheduled. Talk with your children about how they feel about extracurricular activities. If they complain, discuss the pros and cons of stopping one activity. If stopping isn’t an option, explore ways to help manage your child’s time and responsibilities to lessen the anxiety.
Children’ stress may be intensified by more than just what’s happening in their own lives. Do your children hear you talking about troubles at work, worrying about a relative’s illness, or arguing with your spouse about financial matters? Parents should watch how they discuss such issues when their children are near because children will pick up on their parents’ anxieties and start to worry themselves.
World news can cause stress. Children who see disturbing images on TV or hear talk of natural disasters, war, and terrorism may worry about their own safety and that of the people they love. Talk to your children about what they see and hear, and monitor what they watch on TV so that you can help them understand what’s going on.
Also, be aware of complicating factors, such as an illness, death of a loved one, or a divorce. When these are added to the everyday pressures children face, the stress is magnified. Even the most amicable divorce can be tough for children because their basic security system – their family – is undergoing a big change. Separated or divorced parents should never put children in a position of having to choose sides or expose them to negative comments about the other spouse.
Also realize that some things that aren’t a big deal to adults can cause significant stress for children. Let your children know that you understand they’re stressed and don’t dismiss their feelings as inappropriate.
Signs and Symptoms
While it’s not always easy to recognize when children are stressed out, short-term behavioral changes – such as mood swings, acting out, changes in sleep patterns, or bedwetting – can be indications. Some children have physical effects, including stomachaches and headaches. Others have trouble concentrating or completing schoolwork. Still others become withdrawn or spend a lot of time alone.
Younger children may pick up new habits like thumb sucking, hair twirling, or nose picking; older children may begin to lie, bully, or defy authority. A child who is stressed also may overreact to minor problems, have nightmares, become clingy, or have drastic changes in academic performance.
How can you help children cope with stress? Proper rest and good nutrition can boost coping skills, as can good parenting. Make time for your children each day. Whether they need to talk or just be in the same room with you, make yourself available. Don’t try to make them talk, even if you know what they’re worried about. Sometimes children just feel better when you spend time with them on fun activities.
Even as children get older, quality time is important. It’s really hard for some people to come home after work, get down on the floor, and play with their children or just talk to them about their day – especially if they’ve had a stressful day themselves. But expressing interest shows your children that they’re important to you.
Help your child cope with stress by talking about what may be causing it. Together, you can come up with a few solutions like cutting back on after-school activities, spending more time talking with parents or teachers, developing an exercise regimen, or keeping a journal.
You also can help by anticipating potentially stressful situations and preparing children for them. For example, let your son or daughter know ahead of time that a doctor’s appointment is coming up and talk about what will happen there. Tailor the information to your child’s age – younger children won’t need as much advance preparation or details as older children or teens.
Remember that some level of stress is normal; let your children know that it’s OK to feel angry, scared, lonely, or anxious and that other people share those feelings. Reassurance is important, so remind them that you’re confident that they can handle the situation.
Helping your child cope
When children can’t or won’t discuss their stressful issues, try talking about your own. This shows that you’re willing to tackle tough topics and are available to talk with when they’re ready. If a child shows symptoms that concern you and is unwilling to talk, consult a therapist or other mental health specialist.
There are many books on the market that can help young children identify with characters in stressful situations and learn how they cope. Take a look at the e2epublishing blog for a list of 12 of the best books to help children with anxiety..
Most parents have the skills to deal with their child’s stress. The time to seek professional attention is when any change in behavior persists, when stress is causing serious anxiety, or when the behavior causes significant problems at school or at home.
If you need help finding resources for your child, consult your doctor or the counselors and teachers at school.